Fruit Trees 101

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Few plants produce a sweeter product than fruit trees.
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Citrus trees require a little work, but they can be grown both indoors and out!
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Growing dwarf cherry trees makes your fruit easier to protect from diseases and birds.
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Peach and nectarine trees produce delicious fruit, but they are often short-lived.
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Pruning is a key aspect of growing fruit trees.
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Depending on your Zone, you'll want to plant fruit trees in either February or early spring.
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Invest in some manual fruit-processing equipment to make your harvest and processing go more smoothly.

No plants give sweeter returns than fruit trees. From cold-hardy apples and cherries to semi-tropical citrus fruits, fruit trees grow in all but the most extreme climates — provided you choose the right varieties and remain dedicated to tree TLC. Growing fruit trees is not as simple as maintaining some annual crops, like tomatoes or basil. Your main commitments will be routine pruning and monitoring of pests.

To avoid frustration, you’ll also want to take the time to find out which fruit trees are known to grow well in your area. To find varieties recommended where you live, check with your local extension service (find yours at Extension Office Directory). Some fruit tree varieties require a certain level of chill hours — a period of time when temperatures are below about 45 degrees Fahrenheit — in order to thrive. Others will not set fruit without the cross-pollination from another nearby tree.

Fruit Trees Worth Trying

Even trees described as “self-fertile” will perform better if grown near another variety known to be a compatible pollinator. Extension publications and nursery catalogs often include tables listing compatible varieties.

Apples (Malus domestica) are the most popular tree fruits because they are widely adapted, relatively easy to grow and routine palate-pleasers. The ideal soil pH for apples is 6.5, but apple trees can adjust to more acidic soil if it’s fertile and well-drained. Most apple varieties, including disease-resistant ‘Freedom’ and ‘Liberty,’ are adapted to cold-hardiness Zones 4 to 7. (If you don’t know your Zone, see “How Low Can You Go? Know Your Cold-Hardiness Zone” below.) In mild winter climates, you’ll need low-chill varieties, such as ‘Anna’ and ‘Pink Lady.’ No matter your climate, begin by choosing two trees that are compatible pollinators to get good fruit set. Mid- and late-season apples usually have better flavor and store longer compared with early-season varieties.

Cherries (Prunus avium (sweet) and P. cerasus (sour)) range in color from sunny yellow to nearly black and are classified in two subtypes: compact sweet varieties, such as ‘Stella,’ and sour or pie cherries, such as ‘Montmorency’ and ‘North Star.’ Best adapted to Zones 4 to 7, cherry trees need fertile, near-neutral-pH soil and excellent air circulation. Growing 12-foot-tall dwarf cherry trees of either subtype will simplify protecting your crop from diseases and birds, because you will be able to cover the small trees with protective netting easily. You can also spray them with organic sulfur or kaolin clay.

Citrus fruits (Citrus hybrids), including kumquat, Mandarin orange, satsuma and ‘Meyer’ lemon, are among the easiest fruit trees to grow organically in Zones 8b to 10. Fragrant oils in citrus leaves and rinds provide protection from pests, but cold tolerance is limited. ‘Nagami’ kumquat, ‘Owari’ satsuma and ‘Meyer’ lemon trees may occasionally need to be covered with blankets when temperatures drop below freezing, but winter harvests of homegrown citrus fruits will be worth the trouble. (See our recent article, “7 Best Plants to Grow Indoors in Winter,” (Nov/Dec 2017) to learn more about growing citrus in the great indoors instead!)

Peaches and nectarines (Prunus persica) are on everyone’s wish list, but growing these fruit trees organically requires an excellent site, preventive pest management and some luck. More than other fruit trees, peach and nectarine trees need good deep soil with no compacted subsoil or hardpan. Peaches and nectarines are best adapted to Zones 5 to 8, but specialized varieties can be grown in colder and warmer climates. Peach and nectarine trees are often short-lived because of wood-boring insects, so plan to plant new trees every 10 years or so.

Plums (Prunus species and hybrids) tend to produce fruit erratically because the trees often lose their crop to late freezes or disease. In good years, plum trees will yield heavy crops of juicy fruits that vary in color from light green to dark purple. Best adapted to Zones 4 to 8, plum trees need at least one compatible variety nearby to ensure good pollination. In some areas, selected native species, such as beach plums in the Northeast or sand plums in the Midwest, may make the best backyard plums.

Pears (Pyrus species and hybrids) are slightly less cold-hardy than apples but are easier to grow organically in a wide range of climates. In Zones 4 to 7, choose pear varieties that have good resistance to fire blight, such as ‘Honeysweet’ or ‘Moonglow.’ In Zones 5 to 8, Asian pear trees produce beautiful, crisp-fleshed fruits if given routine care. Most table-quality pears should be harvested before they are fully ripe.

How to Plant Fruit Trees

The best time to plant fruit trees in Zones 3 to 7 is early spring, after the soil has thawed. Fruit trees that are set out just as they emerge from winter dormancy will rapidly grow new roots. In Zones 8 to 10, plant new trees in February. Choose a sunny site with fertile, well-drained soil. Dig a planting hole twice the size of the root ball of the tree. Carefully spread the roots in the hole, and backfill with soil. Set trees at the same depth at which they grew at the nursery, taking care not to bury any graft union (swollen area) on the main trunk. Water well, and install a trunk guard made of hardware cloth or spiral plastic over the lowest section of the trunk to protect it from insects, rodents, sunscald and physical injuries. Stake the tree loosely to hold it steady. Mulch over the root zone of the planted trees with wood chips, sawdust or another slow-rotting mulch. Water particularly well during dry spells for the first two years.

One year after planting, fertilize fruit trees in spring by raking back the mulch and scratching a balanced organic fertilizer into the soil surface (follow application rates on the product’s label). Then add a wood-based mulch to bring the mulch depth up to four inches in a four-foot circle around the tree. After two years, stop using trunk guards and instead switch to coating the trunks with white latex paint to defend against winter injuries. Add sand to the paint to deter rabbits and voles.

3 Keys to Success with Homegrown Fruit

1. Never neglect to prune. Pruning is a key aspect of growing fruit trees. The goal is to provide the leaves and fruit access to light and fresh air. The ideal branching pattern varies with species, and some apple and pear trees can be pruned and trained into fence- or wall-hugging “espaliers” to save space (and look artful). Begin pruning fruit trees to shape them in their first year, and then prune annually in late winter, before the buds swell. Pruning a little too much questionable growth is better than removing too little. Check with your local extension agency if you’re unsure how to prune specific types of trees.

Many fruit trees set too much fruit, and the excess should be thinned. Asian pear trees should have 70 percent of their green fruits snipped off when the pears are the size of a dime, and apples should be thinned to 6 inches apart before the fruits are the size of a quarter. When any type of fruit tree is holding a heavy crop, thinning some of the green fruits will increase fruit size, reduce limb breakage and help prevent alternative bearing (a tree setting a crop only every other year).

2. Harvest at the right time. With the exception of pears, tree fruits should be harvested just as they approach full ripeness and then kept chilled to slow spoilage. The flavor of most apples improves after a few weeks in cold storage, so a second refrigerator or a root cellar may be useful. Apples and pears can be kept for several months in a refrigerator, but softer stone fruits (cherries, nectarines, peaches and plums) must be canned, dried, jellied, pickled, frozen or juiced within a few days of harvest.

3. Remain vigilant about preventing diseases and thwarting pests. Some types of fruit crops attract a large number of insect pests and can succumb to several widespread diseases for which no resistant varieties are available. For example, all stone fruits are affected by brown rot, a fungal disease that overwinters readily. Apply early-season, organic sulfur sprays to suppress brown rot and other common diseases. Some apples have good genetic resistance to the diseases known as scab and rust, but you will still need to manage insect pests, such as codling moths. If you happen to have chickens, allow them to forage beneath your fruit trees occasionally to help suppress insects. Many organic growers also keep their fruit trees coated with kaolin clay during the growing season to repel pests.

Know Your Cold-Hardiness Zone

The “Zones” referred to in this article come from maps published by the United States Department of Agriculture that show the average minimum winter temperature for each region. Some types of fruit can tolerate more winter cold than others, so your area’s cold-hardiness is important to know before you choose which fruit trees to grow. If a nursery or mail-order company does not or cannot tell you which gardening Zone a crop is suited for, you should probably buy from another supplier. If you don’t know your Zone, you can find it at USDA Hardiness Zone Map.

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