Geraniol Oil for Stunting Tumors

Inside herbal chemistry: Scented geranium essentail oil may slow the growth of cancerous tumors.

| November/December 1997

Scented geraniums offer many ornamental and aromatic pleasures. They also contain compounds that may benefit human health. One particular compound, geraniol, has slowed the growth of cancerous tumors in both human cell cultures and animals.

A source of essential oils used in the perfume and fragrance industries, scented geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) are unusual because their scent comes from their leaves rather than their flowers. Varieties of scented geraniums include mint, apple, pine, lemon, nutmeg, and rose. In the sixteenth century, European explorers found scented geraniums growing wild in South Africa and took them back to their homeland, where the plants became very popular. The French discovered that oil from rose-scented geraniums (P. radens x P. capitatum) could substitute for the more expensive attar of roses (top-quality rose petal extract) in making perfume.

Geraniol, one of the principal components of rose geranium oil, has a sweet, mildly floral aroma, according to the University of Delaware’s Arthur Tucker, Ph.D., an expert on essential oils and an Herbs for Health adviser. Geraniol belongs to a large class of plant chemicals known as isoprenoids, compounds that are concentrated in essential oils; they include chemicals such as menthol and vitamin E.

A steady intake of various isoprenoids is believed to be one reason that diets high in fruits and vegetables decrease the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Some isoprenoids, including geraniol, also help detoxify the liver and moderately lower blood-cholesterol levels.

Preventive care may not be the only benefit of isoprenoids. In recent studies, isoprenoids have suppressed the growth of aggressive cancers in human cell cultures. And a review of animal studies shows that geraniol inhibits tumor growth when given in controlled amounts in the animals’ food. In one study, liver cancer didn’t grow when rats received either 400 micromoles of geraniol in their daily diet or 45 micromoles of geranoic acid through daily injections. In both groups, some rats survived—tumor-free.

In two other experiments, researchers tested to see whether isoprenoids could be used to treat pancreatic cancer, which is usually unresponsive to chemotherapy. (The five-year survival rate is only 4 percent.) Researchers transplanted pancreatic tumors into groups of fifteen hamsters. In the first experiment, hamsters were fed a diet containing geraniol, farnesol (an isoprenoid found in lemon grass and cumin), or perillyl alcohol for one week before the transplant and for twenty-five days after. Tumor growth in the hamsters fed geraniol or farnesol at 20 g per kg of body weight stopped completely. But 50 percent of the hamsters fed perillyl alcohol at 40 g per kilogram of body weight developed tumors, and 20 g doses were ineffective.

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